Online ISSN: 2754-9380

Main Subjects : Epidemiology

A bibliometric analysis of Koro syndrome

Sujita Kumar Kar; S.M. Yasir Arafat; Vikas Menon; Pawan Sharma; Anamika Das; Sayuri Perera; Akanksha Shankar

DOI: 10.52095/gp.2022.4460.1039

Koro is a culture-bound syndrome that primarily affects males of China, South Asia, and Africa. Our objective was to perform a bibliometric analysis of available published literature on Koro, till date
The SCOPUS database was searched, from inception, for publications on Koro using a combination of terms "Koro Syndrome" OR "Genital Retraction”. Available articles were screened to identify the relevant articles.
A total of 62 relevant articles were found in the SCOPUS database and included in the study. Majority (n=46;74.2%) of these were original articles. Medicine (n=61;98%) followed by Psychology (n=8; 12.9%) were the common originating specialties for research on Koro. The oldest publication was in 1973; maximum publications were in 1990 (9.68 %, n=6) followed by in the year 2005 (8.06%, n=5). The British Journal of Psychiatry published maximum articles on Koro (n=6). Culture Medicine and Psychiatry, Journal of Urology and Medicine Clinica had 3(4.8%) publications each. One hundred and thirty-one authors from 67 institutes and twenty-four countries contributed to research output on Koro; of them, most publications were from the United States of America (n=10).
Although "Koro" is a well-known entity, the number of publications on Koro is scarce, sporadic, and not globally representative.

Epidemiology of suicides in Brazil: a systematic review

Leonardo Baldaçara; Alexandrina Meleiro; João Quevedo; Homero Vallada; Antônio Geraldo da Silva

DOI: 10.52095/gp.2022.4377.1035

Aim: Find and review data about suicide prevalence and incidence in Brazil.
Methods: This is a Systematic Review that used PRISMA protocol and has PROSPERO registration at the number CRD42021288299. Using the PubMed, Scielo databases, Brazilian Ministry of Health, and WHO documents; 203 papers (metanalysis, systematic reviews, cohorts, cross-sectional, and government documents) published from 2010 to 2021 were initially selected, of which forty-three remained in the review. This is a Systematic Review that used PRISMA protocol and has PROSPERO registration at the number CRD42021288299. Risk of bias was assessed by Cochrane Bias Risk Assessment tool.
Results: The data showed that suicide rates in Brazil range between 4.6 and 6.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. From 2000 to 2020 and showed an increased risk of death from suicide in all regions of Brazil, highlighting the South and Midwest regions. Overall, suicide in Brazil is more prevalent in older, among those aged 15 to 45 years (besides there is an increase in adolescent mortality rates), unmarried, males, and those who present mental disorders, and is associated with unemployment and economic deprivation. Indigenous people have elevated levels of suicide compared to non-indigenous. Hanging and poisoning were the most common methods used and the suicide most happen at home.
Limitations: Only English and Portuguese publications were included in the present work. All studies published in the different periods were included. Some biases were observed: some studies had restricted eligibility criteria, different measures, other fail to adequately control confound variables. We protect the quality of article excluding studies were bias could compromise interpretation.
Conclusions: The consolidated information from this present systematic review about suicidal behaviour in Brazil may contribute to the assessment of the current situation and future planning of public health interventions, especially better prevention efforts.

There is a substantial global burden of perioperative anxiety in the paediatric population – a systematic review

Iona Minty; Millicent Banks

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 208-217
DOI: 10.52095/gp.2021.1181.1014

Objective: Perioperative anxiety is described as an uncomfortable, tense or unpleasant mood at any point in the surgical journey. It can alter the way patients’ deal with the surgical experience and think about surgical treatments in the future. This systematic review aims to investigate the methods of diagnosing perioperative anxiety and assess the prevalence of the condition within the global paediatric population undergoing operations.
Materials and methods: The systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA Checklist (a 27-item checklist to address introduction, methods, results and discussion with a systematic review). Medline and Scopus databases were searched. Two independent reviewers determined which papers were suitable for inclusion. Inclusion was determined by the mention of prevalence of operative-related anxiety, in a population under 18 years old and patients that were undergoing an operation in a hospital setting. Initially, 48 papers were found and, after screening, a total of 12 eligible studies were included. Data was extracted on the method of diagnosis of anxiety, the prevalence of perioperative anxiety, the time of assessment and the age of the cohort. Cochrane bias assessment was used to assess the presence of types of bias in randomised control trials (RCTs) included and the risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions tool in each non-RCTs.
Results: 83% (n=10) studies used the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) for diagnosis.‌‌ The overall average prevalence of perioperative anxiety in each paediatric cohort undergoing surgery was 42.1% (95% CI 30.5 - 53.7). There was not sufficient evidence to support a relationship between the age of the patient groups, the time of the anxiety assessment and the prevalence of the perioperative anxiety.
Conclusion: Paediatric anxiety remains a significant factor affecting over a third of all children who undergo operations. The vast majority of papers used the mYPAS for diagnosis although there is still some debate about the most appropriate diagnostic tool. Further studies are needed to assess the factors influencing perioperative anxiety and to evaluate the impact of perioperative anxiety on the patient experience and recovery.

The socioeconomic burden and disability linked with mental illnesses: findings from the National Mental Health Survey of India 2015-16 in Uttar Pradesh

Sujita Kumar Kar; Eesha Sharma; Vivek Agarwal; Shivendra Kumar Singh; Pronob Kumar Dalal; Gopalkrishna Gururaj; Girish N Rao

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 191-200
DOI: 10.52095/gp.2021.3586.1024

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems can lead to a substantial disability, financial loss, and a caregiver burden globally. The national mental health survey of India (NMHS) 2015-16 attempted to estimate the disability and socio-economic impact of mental morbidities in India and the representative state level. This paper reports the socio-economic impact and disability due to mental morbidity in Uttar Pradesh, India, by NMHS-2015-16, which will help the policymakers address the mental healthcare needs of the community.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study done in the community setting. The investigators estimated socio-economic impact due to mental morbidities by using a structured questionnaire and applying the Sheehan Disability Scale.
RESULTS: A total of 3,508 adults were interviewed, of which 282 individuals had a lifetime prevalence of mental health problems (excluding tobacco use disorder). Disability was reported: 27.3% at work, 31.9% in family life and 28.4% in social settings. Disability due to mental health problems were more evident in those with common and severe mental illnesses. The median monthly expense for the illness was found to be about 1,000 rupees INR (10 GBP). The individuals with mental health issues found in this study had 10 days of absentism from work and 20 days of reduced efficiency in work in the past 30 days.
Conclusion: Disabilities related to mental health illness are having significant socio-economic impact across India. There is a need for early intervention and more adequate addressing of these issues across the national mental health policy and programming arena.

Association of social stigma of COVID-19 with work satisfaction, burnout and fatigue among healthcare workers in Nepal

RAKESH SINGH; Madhusudan Subedi; ChandraC Bahadur Sunar; Smriti Pant; Babita Singh; Bigya Shah; Sharika Mahato

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 180-190
DOI: 10.52095/gp.2021.3838.1027

Background: Stigma towards the patient of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been reported in various media reports, including negative behaviour among health care workers (HCWs) towards COVID-19 patients. Moreover, the negative behaviour of HCWs towards COVID-19 patients could affect the professional quality of life of these HCWs.
Objective: We aimed to assess stigma related to COVID-19 patients among HCWs and explore its impact on their professional quality of life during COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal.
Methods: An online cross-sectional study was carried out among 421 HCWs (health assistants 35.6%, nurses 33%, doctors 23.3% and paramedics 8.1%), 52.7% female, working in health facilities in Nepal. The measures included background characteristics, stigma in terms of - discrimination towards COVID-19 patients, acceptance of COVID-19 patients and fear of COVID-19, and professional quality of life in terms of - work satisfaction, burnout and fatigue. Descriptive and inferential statistics were utilised to analyze the data in SPSSvs20.
Results: While around two-third of the study participants showed discriminating attitude towards COVID-19, a half showed negative attitude towards acceptance of COVID-19 patients, and a fifth reported attitude of fear of COVID-19.
Multivariable regression analysis indicated that while presence of fear of COVID-19 was associated with low satisfaction, low burnout, and low fatigue; attitude of acceptance of COVID-19 patients was associated with low burnout and low fatigue; and attitude of discrimination towards COVID-19 patients was associated with only low satisfaction.
Conclusion: Strategies directed towards - reducing fear and discrimination towards COVID-19 patients, and enhancing positive attitude of acceptance towards COVID-19 patients among HCWs, and thus, creating enabling environment for reducing their burnout and fatigue, and increasing work satisfaction are recommended.

A cross-sectional study of prevalence and predictors of psychological distress during COVID-19 pandemic among the Indian population

Vivian Kapil Venugopal; Natarajan Shanmugasundharam; Rohith Khanna Deivasigamani; Ashly Shibu; Mithun Prasad Vivekanandam; Ravindran Ottilingam Somasundaram; Karthik MS; Sathianathan Ramanathan; Ramya Revathi Rajagopal; Zubaida Sultana Shujaath Ali; Suresh Kumar Munirathinam

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 218-229
DOI: 10.52095/gp.2021.3858.1028

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of psychological distress and identify the predictors and factors associated with the distress during the onset of COVID-19 pandemic among Indian population.

Methods: An online cross-sectional study with a semi-structured questionnaire was used to assess the psychological distress using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among Indians. Descriptive statistics and prevalence of psychological distress were calculated. Chi-square test was done to find the association between the independent variables and psychological distress. Factors that are significantly associated with psychological distress were further analysed using multiple logistic regression analysis to identify the predictors.

Results: 846 responses were obtained with mean age 32 years (32.45 ± 11.44). 35% (n=290) had significant psychological distress with mean GHQ-12 score of 2.37. Factors associated were age (p=0.002), family members having COVID symptoms (p=0.017), lockdown distress (p=0.0001), source of health information (p=0.041), perception that information by social media increased fear (p=0.0001), likelihood of family contracting COVID-19 (p=0.022), pattern of food consumption (p=0.0001) and worry about financial burden during lockdown (p=0.0001). By logistic regression analysis, we found increased odds of developing psychological distress among the participants aged less than 40 years (OR=1.49, C.I=1-2.249,p=0.050); people who felt distressed due to the lockdown situation (OR= 2.31, C.I=1.694-3.162, p=0.0001); individuals whose fear increased due to social media information (OR=1.55, C.I= 1.144-2.113, p=0.005) and participants whose food pattern increased during the lockdown period (OR=1.41, C.I=1.035-1.923, p=0.029).

Conclusions: Nearly 1/3rd of the participants were in a state of psychological distress which transcended topographical barriers with factors such as being less than 40 years of age, accessing health information through social media, pattern of food consumption being increased and being in lockdown situation as predictors of psychological distress.

The perceived stigma associated with COVID-19: findings from a community survey in India

Sudha Mishra; Sujita Kumar Kar; Deblina Roy; S.M. Yasir Arafat

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 201-207
DOI: 10.52095/gp.2021.4064.1029

BACKGROUND: Stigma related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be a potential barrier in the prevention of the disease. The current study aimed to measure COVID-19-related stigma among the people of India.
METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire regarding the socio-demographic background and perceived stigma towards COVID-19, using a convenient sampling technique.
RESULTS: A total of 405 responses were received. The respondents’ mean age was 25.6 ±8 years with an age range of 18-76 years, and 52.5% were male. Among the respondents: 60 believed that they would be judged negatively by other people if they disclose their COVID status; 59% believed that if the COVID-19 status of a person is reported to their employer, they are likely to lose their jobs;70% reported that they would feel uncomfortable with patients with COVID-19 infection; 67% thought that developing COVID-19 can make them isolated from society.
CONCLUSION: Perceived stigma was found in the form of fear of being negatively judged and fear of losing their job after disclosing their COVID-19 status. The study warrants an urgent need for stigma reduction strategies which are focused on education and awareness concerning COVID-19.

Suicidal behaviour during COVID-19 pandemic in Iraq: An analysis of newspaper reports

Araz Ramazan Ahmad; Ayoob Kareem Saeed; Vikas Menon; Sheikh Shoib; S.M. Yasir Arafat

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 173-179
DOI: 10.52095/gp.2021.3686.1025

Background: Suicide is a major public health issue that has been under-researched in Iraq, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Aim: The study aimed to assess the characteristics, methods, and risk factors of suicidal behavior in Iraq during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: We searched the news reports between April and May 2021 on Google using the term “suicide news in Iraq. We included online newspaper reports of suicidal behavior in Iraq that were published from January 2020 to April 2021.
Results: A total of 156 reports was studied. The majority of reports were published in the Arabic language (59%). Among the newspapers, the majority of the reports were published in the Nalia Radio and Television (NRT) and the shafaqnews (11.5% each). The mean age of the suicidal attempts was 27.69 (±13.78) years ranging from 10-65 years. The majority were male (57.7%), married (18%), student (9.6%), and urban habitant (64.74%). Hanging (31.4%), firearms (22.4%), and fall from height were the leading methods of suicide and familial disharmony (12.8%), mental disorder (9.6%), financial constraints (5.1%), marital discord (3.2%), COVID-19 related factors [like being infected, quarantined] (3.2%) were the leading cause of proximally related factors of suicidal attempts.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that of all suicides during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iraq, the majority are that of young, married, employed males. Furthermore, interpersonal and financial stressors are possible risk factors for suicide in this period.

Depression and associated factors among international students in a private university of Bangladesh

Adamu Jamilah; Md Imdadul Haque; Russell Kabir

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2021, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 55-61
DOI: 10.52095/gp.2020.1406

Background: Depression is the second major cause of disability and is a principal source of disease burden worldwide which is quite common among international students.
Aim: This study explored the depression and its associated factors among international students of a private university in Bangladesh.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 149 international students at a private university in Dhaka, Bangladesh using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D 10) Scale.
Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among international students was 47.7%. Students’ age, marital status, satisfaction with living conditions and problems concerning studies, food, homesickness, finances, accommodation, and health were significantly associated with depression.
Conclusion: This study concluded that there is an unmet need for psychological support for international students studying in Bangladesh. Appropriate support services should be directed to them to help and to overcome the challenges they face.

Empirical studies on suicide in Bangladesh in a decade (2011-2020)

S.M. Yasir Arafat; Fahad Hussain; Khandakar Md. Jakaria; Zarin Tasnim Itu; Md. Aminul Islam

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2021, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 109-122
DOI: 10.52095/gp.2021.10692

Background:  An adequate number of empirical studies is necessary to formulate a national suicide prevention programme.
Aims:  To assess the extent of empirical studies on suicide in a decade (2011-2020) in Bangladesh.
Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted to identify the articles available in PubMed, PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, and BanglaJOL using the search term “suicide in Bangladesh”, “self-harm in Bangladesh”, “poisoning in Bangladesh”, “suicidal behaviour in Bangladesh”. We included all the original articles in full-length format that were published in the English language, accessible in the full texts, published between 2011 and 2020, and assessing suicidal behaviour in Bangladesh. A total of 44 empirical studies were included in this review.
Results: Among the 44 studies, 6.8% were qualitative studies, 34.1% applied interview, 31.8% analysed the secondary data. All the studies followed a cross-sectional design, nine studies assessed youth suicidality, and only one study assessed the suicidality among the elderly. Studies of the earlier half of the decade explored epidemiological aspects, whereas studies in the last five years assessed the newer topics such as quality of media reporting, psychological autopsy study, perspectives after nonfatal attempt, sociological perspectives, ontological perspectives, masculinity, and suicide, and financial loss due to suicide. About 41% of the papers had a collaboration with the authors of other countries, and about 18.2% of the papers were externally funded either partially or fully.
Conclusion: Although newer studies are coming out, suicide is an under-studied public health problem as no nationwide, longitudinal and interventional study has been identified during a decade (2011-2020) in Bangladesh. The proper attention of all the stakeholders is warranted to improve the scenario.