Main Subjects : Epidemiology
Background: Suicide is a major public health issue that has been under-researched in Iraq, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Aim: The study aimed to assess the characteristics, methods, and risk factors of suicidal behavior in Iraq during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: We searched the news reports between April and May 2021 on Google using the term “suicide news in Iraq. We included online newspaper reports of suicidal behavior in Iraq that were published from January 2020 to April 2021.
Results: A total of 156 reports was studied. The majority of reports were published in the Arabic language (59%). Among the newspapers, the majority of the reports were published in the Nalia Radio and Television (NRT) and the shafaqnews (11.5% each). The mean age of the suicidal attempts was 27.69 (±13.78) years ranging from 10-65 years. The majority were male (57.7%), married (18%), student (9.6%), and urban habitant (64.74%). Hanging (31.4%), firearms (22.4%), and fall from height were the leading methods of suicide and familial disharmony (12.8%), mental disorder (9.6%), financial constraints (5.1%), marital discord (3.2%), COVID-19 related factors [like being infected, quarantined] (3.2%) were the leading cause of proximally related factors of suicidal attempts.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that of all suicides during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iraq, the majority are that of young, married, employed males. Furthermore, interpersonal and financial stressors are possible risk factors for suicide in this period.
There is a substantial global burden of perioperative anxiety in the paediatric population – a systematic review
Objective: Perioperative anxiety is described as an uncomfortable, tense or unpleasant mood at any point in the surgical
journey. It can alter the way patients’ deal with the surgical experience and think about surgical treatments in the future.
This systematic review aims to investigate the methods of diagnosing perioperative anxiety and assess the prevalence of the
condition within the global paediatric population undergoing operations.
Materials and methods: The systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA Checklist (a 27-item checklist to
address introduction, methods, results and discussion with a systematic review). Medline and Scopus databases were searched.
Two independent reviewers determined which papers were suitable for inclusion. Inclusion was determined by the mention
of prevalence of operative-related anxiety, in a population under 18 years old and patients that were undergoing an operation
in a hospital setting. Initially, 48 papers were found and, after screening, a total of 12 eligible studies were included. Data was
extracted on the method of diagnosis of anxiety, the prevalence of perioperative anxiety, the time of assessment and the age
of the cohort. Cochrane bias assessment was used to assess the presence of types of bias in randomised control trials (RCTs)
included and the risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions tool in each non-RCTs.
Results: 83% (n=10) studies used the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) for diagnosis. The overall average
prevalence of perioperative anxiety in each paediatric cohort undergoing surgery was 42.1% (95% CI 30.5 - 53.7). There was
not sufficient evidence to support a relationship between the age of the patient groups, the time of the anxiety assessment and
the prevalence of the perioperative anxiety.
Conclusion: Paediatric anxiety remains a significant factor affecting over a third of all children who undergo operations.
The vast majority of papers used the mYPAS for diagnosis although there is still some debate about the most appropriate
diagnostic tool. Further studies are needed to assess the factors influencing perioperative anxiety and to evaluate the impact of
perioperative anxiety on the patient experience and recovery.
The socioeconomic burden and disability linked with mental illnesses: findings from the National Mental Health Survey of India 2015-16 in Uttar Pradesh
Background: Mental illness attributes to a substantial disability, financial loss, and caregiver burden globally. The national mental health survey of India (NMHS) 2015-16 attempted to estimate the disability and socio-economic impact of mental morbidities in India and the representative state level. This article reports the socio-economic impact and disability due to mental morbidity in Uttar Pradesh, India, by NMHS-2015-16, which will help the policy makers to address these mental healthcare needs of the community.
Method: This was a cross-sectional study done in the community setting. The investigators estimated socio-economic impact due to mental morbidities by using a structured questionnaire and disability by applying Sheehan Disability Scale.
Result: A total of 3508 adults were interviewed, of which 282 individuals had life time prevalence of mental illness (excluding tobacco use disorder); however, disability was reported in 27.3% in work domain, 31.9% in family life domain and 28.4% in social life domain. Disability due to mental illness was more evident in those with common and severe mental illnesses. The median monthly expense for the illness was found to be about 1000 rupees INR. Individuals with any mental illness nearly 10 days from work and 20 days of reduced work efficiency in past month.
Conclusion: The disability related to mental illness is having significant socio-economic impact. There is a need for early intervention and adequate address of these issues in the national mental health policy and programs for their effective control.
Background: Stigma related to COVID-19 can be a potential barrier in the prevention of this disease. The current study aimed to measure COVID-19 related stigma among the people of India.
Method: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire regarding the socio-demographic background and perceived stigma towards COVID-19, using a convenient sampling technique.
Result: A total of 405 responses was received. The respondents' mean age was 25.6 ±8 years with an age range of 18-76 years, and 52.5% were male. Among the respondents, 60% of the respondents believed that they would be judged negatively by other people if they disclose their COVID status; 59% believed that if the COVID-19 status of a person is reported to their employer, they are likely to lose their jobs;.70% reported that they would feel uncomfortable with patients with COVID-19 infection, and 67% thought that developing COVID-19 can make them isolated from their societies.
Conclusion: Perceived stigma was found in the form of fear of being negatively judged and fear of losing the job after disclosing the COVID-19 status. The Perceived stigma has impacted the public in a negative way. The study warrants an urgent need for stigma reduction strategies focused on education and awareness concerning COVID-19.
Depression and associated factors among international students in a private University of Bangladesh
2021, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 55-61
Background: Depression is the second major cause of disability and is a principal source of disease burden worldwide which is quite common among international students.
Aim: This study explored the depression and its associated factors among international students of a private university in Bangladesh.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 149 international students at a private university in Dhaka, Bangladesh using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D 10) Scale.
Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among international students was 47.7%. Students’ age, marital status, satisfaction with living conditions and problems concerning studies, food, homesickness, finances, accommodation, and health were significantly associated with depression.
Conclusion: This study concluded that there is an unmet need for psychological support for international students studying in Bangladesh. Appropriate support services should be directed to them to help and to overcome the challenges they face.
2021, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 109-122
Background: An adequate number of empirical studies is necessary to formulate a national suicide prevention programme.
Aims: To assess the extent of empirical studies on suicide in a decade (2011-2020) in Bangladesh.
Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted to identify the articles available in PubMed, PubMed Central, Scopus, Google Scholar, and BanglaJOL using the search term “suicide in Bangladesh”, “self-harm in Bangladesh”, “poisoning in Bangladesh”, “suicidal behaviour in Bangladesh”. We included all the original articles in full-length format that were published in the English language, accessible in the full texts, published between 2011 and 2020, and assessing suicidal behaviour in Bangladesh. A total of 44 empirical studies were included in this review.
Results: Among the 44 studies, 6.8% were qualitative studies, 34.1% applied interview, 31.8% analysed the secondary data. All the studies followed a cross-sectional design, nine studies assessed youth suicidality, and only one study assessed the suicidality among the elderly. Studies of the earlier half of the decade explored epidemiological aspects, whereas studies in the last five years assessed the newer topics such as quality of media reporting, psychological autopsy study, perspectives after nonfatal attempt, sociological perspectives, ontological perspectives, masculinity, and suicide, and financial loss due to suicide. About 41% of the papers had a collaboration with the authors of other countries, and about 18.2% of the papers were externally funded either partially or fully.
Conclusion: Although newer studies are coming out, suicide is an under-studied public health problem as no nationwide, longitudinal and interventional study has been identified during a decade (2011-2020) in Bangladesh. The proper attention of all the stakeholders is warranted to improve the scenario.