Epidemiology of suicides in Brazil: a systematic review
AbstractAim: Find and review data about suicide prevalence and incidence in Brazil.
Methods: This is a Systematic Review that used PRISMA protocol and has PROSPERO registration at the number CRD42021288299. Using the PubMed, Scielo databases, Brazilian Ministry of Health, and WHO documents; 203 papers (metanalysis, systematic reviews, cohorts, cross-sectional, and government documents) published from 2010 to 2021 were initially selected, of which forty-three remained in the review. This is a Systematic Review that used PRISMA protocol and has PROSPERO registration at the number CRD42021288299. Risk of bias was assessed by Cochrane Bias Risk Assessment tool.
Results: The data showed that suicide rates in Brazil range between 4.6 and 6.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. From 2000 to 2020 and showed an increased risk of death from suicide in all regions of Brazil, highlighting the South and Midwest regions. Overall, suicide in Brazil is more prevalent in older, among those aged 15 to 45 years (besides there is an increase in adolescent mortality rates), unmarried, males, and those who present mental disorders, and is associated with unemployment and economic deprivation. Indigenous people have elevated levels of suicide compared to non-indigenous. Hanging and poisoning were the most common methods used and the suicide most happen at home.
Limitations: Only English and Portuguese publications were included in the present work. All studies published in the different periods were included. Some biases were observed: some studies had restricted eligibility criteria, different measures, other fail to adequately control confound variables. We protect the quality of article excluding studies were bias could compromise interpretation.
Conclusions: The consolidated information from this present systematic review about suicidal behaviour in Brazil may contribute to the assessment of the current situation and future planning of public health interventions, especially better prevention efforts.
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