Document Type : Research paper


1 Manipal College of Nursing, MAHE, Manipal Karnataka

2 KGMU College of Nursing, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, U.P.,226003

3 Department of King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India


Background: The opioid dependence syndrome impacts patients and affects their caregivers. In India, the caregivers tie a strong bond with patients and play a significant role in their treatment. However, the caregivers suffer adverse effects like violence, anxiety, depression symptoms, and other psychological stress due to the opioid use of those they care for. Especially, spouses of opioid users experience a greater rate of co-dependency (excessive emotional or psychological dependency on their partner) and family burden.
Aim: This study measured the co-dependency, depression, anxiety, and family burden and their association among caregivers of patients with opioid dependence syndrome.
Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 132 caregivers of patients with opioid dependence syndrome at a tertiary care unit of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh using the MINI 6.0 for co-morbidities, Span Fischer co-dependency scale for co-dependency, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 for anxiety, and Family Burden Interview Schedule for family burden tools. The data were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 16.
Result: The study demonstrated that caregivers of opioid dependence syndrome patients reported severe co-dependency (50%), severe anxiety (75.6%), and moderately severe depression (54.5%). All participants reported a high burden (100%). A positive correlation was found between variables like- co-dependency and anxiety, co-dependency and depression, co-dependency and family burden, anxiety and depression, anxiety and family burden, and depression and family burden. A significant association was found among variables like co-dependency and anxiety, depression, and family burden which is the following hypothesis.
Conclusion: The present study illustrated that all the caregivers experienced anxiety, depression, co-dependency, and family burden. Preventive measures need to address these issues of caregivers during the treatment of patients with opioid use disorder.
Keywords: Caregivers; Opioid Dependence Syndrome; Co-Dependency; Anxiety; Depression; Family Burden


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