Online ISSN: 2754-9380

Keywords : suicide

Artificial intelligence-based models for augmenting media reporting of suicide: challenges and opportunities

Ramdas Ransing; Vikas Menon; Sujita Kumar Kar; S.M. Yasir Arafat

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 123-129
DOI: 10.52095/gp.2021.3037.1017

The sensationalised and harmful content of media reporting of suicide is a modifiable risk factor for suicide and suicidal behaviour. Although the World Health Organization (WHO) has published guidelines for responsible media reporting of suicide to prevent suicide contagion, the uptake of these recommendations across media outlets remains limited due to several barriers such as the motivation of stakeholders, inadequate training of media personnel, and a lack of real-time monitoring by the government. In this report, we suggest that artificial intelligence (AI) based models, can be used to address barriers to guideline adherence and improve the quality of media reporting. It is our understanding that the development and implementation of AI-based models or tools can assist in improving adherence to suicide reporting guidelines. We propose a hybrid model that incorporates steps that can be taken at different levels of the media news communication cycle. The algorithmic approach can help in simultaneously processing large amounts of data while also facilitating the design of article structures and placement of key information recommended by media reporting guidelines. The potential benefits of the AI-based model to the various stakeholders and the challenges in implementation are discussed. Given the positioning of responsible media reporting of suicide as a key population-level suicide prevention strategy, efforts should be made to develop and evaluate AI-based models for improving the quality of media reporting in different national or international settings. 

Suicidal behaviour during COVID-19 pandemic in Iraq: An analysis of newspaper reports

Araz Ramazan Ahmad; Ayoob Kareem Saeed; Vikas Menon; Sheikh Shoib; S.M. Yasir Arafat

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 173-179
DOI: 10.52095/gp.2021.3686.1025

Background: Suicide is a major public health issue that has been under-researched in Iraq, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Aim: The study aimed to assess the characteristics, methods, and risk factors of suicidal behavior in Iraq during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: We searched the news reports between April and May 2021 on Google using the term “suicide news in Iraq. We included online newspaper reports of suicidal behavior in Iraq that were published from January 2020 to April 2021.
Results: A total of 156 reports was studied. The majority of reports were published in the Arabic language (59%). Among the newspapers, the majority of the reports were published in the Nalia Radio and Television (NRT) and the shafaqnews (11.5% each). The mean age of the suicidal attempts was 27.69 (±13.78) years ranging from 10-65 years. The majority were male (57.7%), married (18%), student (9.6%), and urban habitant (64.74%). Hanging (31.4%), firearms (22.4%), and fall from height were the leading methods of suicide and familial disharmony (12.8%), mental disorder (9.6%), financial constraints (5.1%), marital discord (3.2%), COVID-19 related factors [like being infected, quarantined] (3.2%) were the leading cause of proximally related factors of suicidal attempts.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that of all suicides during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iraq, the majority are that of young, married, employed males. Furthermore, interpersonal and financial stressors are possible risk factors for suicide in this period.

Physician suicide: a scoping literature review to highlight opportunities for prevention

Tiffany I. Leung; Rebecca Snyder; Sima S. Pendharkar; Chwen-Yuen Angie Chen

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2020, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 141-168

Objective: The aim of this scoping review is to map the current landscape of published research and perspectives on physician suicide. Findings could serve as a roadmap for further investigations and potentially inform efforts to prevent physician suicide.
Methods: Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus were searched for English-language publications from August 21, 2017 through April 28, 2018. Inclusion criteria were a primary outcome or thesis focused on suicide (including suicide completion, attempts, and thoughts or ideation) among medical students, postgraduate trainees, or attending physicians. Opinion articles were included. Studies that were non-English or those that only mentioned physician burnout, mental health, or substance use disorders were excluded. Data extraction was performed by two authors.
Results: The search yielded 1,596 articles, of which 347 articles passed to the full-text review round. The oldest article was an editorial from 1903; 210 (60.3%) articles have been published from 2000 to present. Authors originated from 37 countries, and 143 (41.2%) were opinion articles. The most discussed were suicide risk factors and culture of practice issues, while the least discussed themes included public health and postvention.
Conclusions: Consistency and reliability of data and information about physician suicides could be improved. Data limitations partly contribute to these issues. Also, various suicide risk factors for physicians have been explored, and several remain poorly understood. Based on this scoping review, a public health approach, including surveillance and early warning systems, investigations of sentinel cases, and postvention may be impactful next steps in preventing physician deaths by suicide.

Current challenges of suicide and future directions of management in Bangladesh: a systematic review

S.M. Yasir Arafat

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 9-20

Bangladesh is a densely populated country in south-east Asia with paucity of research in suicide. This systematic review was aimed at critical appraising various aspects of suicide in Bangladesh based on available literature and systematic search.

Extensive literature search was conducted in Scopus, PubMed, PubMed Central, Google, Google Scholar and BanglaJOL with searching key words without any date boundary and without any basis of types of studies, that is, all types of studies were scrutinised. The author focused on sources of suicide data along with epidemiological variables of suicides in Bangladesh such as suicide rate, gender of victims, methods of suicides, risk factors and prevention activities and role of media in suicide.

After exclusion of repetitions, screening was performed, and finally, 35 articles were selected for review. Amongst the 35 articles, 16 articles were original contributions, 2 systematic reviews, 6 narrative reviews, 2 scoping reviews, 3 editorials, 3 case reports and rest correspondence article. The review revealed that the actual rate of suicide in Bangladesh is yet to come out and quality data is a real challenge. Women are dying more than the men, and early adulthood is the most vulnerable time of life.

Suicide is a under attended problem in Bangladesh, as the country yet to reveal the actual rate of suicide along with the challenge of quality data. Prevention activities have been started but yet to be visualised. Decriminalisation of suicide in the legal criteria and establishment of suicide surveillance can be the top priorities in the country.


Increased Risk of Attempted and Completed Suicide in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Systematic Review of Follow-up Studies

Reinhard Heun

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 61-70
DOI: 10.2478/gp-2018-0009

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe, often long-term mental disorder. It may be independent from, or comorbid with other mental disorders, especially depression and anxiety disorders. Suicidal thoughts, ideations and ruminations are prevalent in subjects with OCD, but it is not yet clear if the incidences of attempted and completed suicides have increased in comparison with the general population and with other psychiatric disorders.
We conducted a systematic literature search on the incidence of suicide attempts and completed suicides in subjects with OCD. Search terms for Pubmed and Medline were OCD and suicide. We selected papers providing follow-up data on the incidence of attempted and completed suicide in OCD.
404 papers were initially identified. Only 8 papers covering six studies provided prospective data on attempted or completed suicide over a defined period in subjects with OCD, four studies included control subjects. Two studies providing follow-up data were limited to high-risk samples and did not provide enough data on the incidence of suicide in comparison with the general population. The conclusion that there is an increased risk of attempted and completed suicides in OCD can only be based on one large Swedish National Registry sample with an up to 44 year follow up. Psychiatric comorbidity is the most relevant risk factor for suicide.
Even though some studies report an increased incidence of attempted and completed suicides in OCD patients from selected high risk samples, the evidence from population based studies is mostly based on one large Swedish study. More long-term studies in the general population with a reduced risk of subject attrition are needed. Using a clear definition and assessment of suicidal behaviour and a common time-frame would improve the comparability of future studies.