Artificial intelligence-based models for augmenting media reporting of suicide: challenges and opportunities
AbstractThe sensationalised and harmful content of media reporting of suicide is a modifiable risk factor for suicide and suicidal behaviour. Although the World Health Organization (WHO) has published guidelines for responsible media reporting of suicide to prevent suicide contagion, the uptake of these recommendations across media outlets remains limited due to several barriers such as the motivation of stakeholders, inadequate training of media personnel, and a lack of real-time monitoring by the government. In this report, we suggest that artificial intelligence (AI) based models, can be used to address barriers to guideline adherence and improve the quality of media reporting. It is our understanding that the development and implementation of AI-based models or tools can assist in improving adherence to suicide reporting guidelines. We propose a hybrid model that incorporates steps that can be taken at different levels of the media news communication cycle. The algorithmic approach can help in simultaneously processing large amounts of data while also facilitating the design of article structures and placement of key information recommended by media reporting guidelines. The potential benefits of the AI-based model to the various stakeholders and the challenges in implementation are discussed. Given the positioning of responsible media reporting of suicide as a key population-level suicide prevention strategy, efforts should be made to develop and evaluate AI-based models for improving the quality of media reporting in different national or international settings.
Allen G, Chan T (2017). Artificial Intelligence and National Security [website]. (https://www.belfercenter.org/sites/default/files/files/publication/AI%20NatSec%20-%20final.pdf).
Allen GC (2019). Understanding China’s AI Strategy: Clues to Chinese Strategic Thinking on Artificial Intelligence and National Security. Center for a New American Security Washington, DC. [website]. https://www.cnas.org/publications/reports/understanding-chinas-ai-strategy
Arafat SMY, Kar SK, Marthoenis M, Cherian AV, Vimala L, Kabir R (2020). Quality of media reporting of suicidal behaviors in South-East Asia. Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research, 37:21-6.
Biswal SK, Gouda NK (2020). Artificial Intelligence in Journalism: A Boon or Bane? In: Kulkarni AJ, Satapathy SC, eds. Optimization in Machine Learning and Applications.Algorithms for Intelligent Systems. Singapore, Springer,2020:155–167. (Algorithms for Intelligent Systems; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-0994-0_10, accessed 27 November 2020).
Bohanna I, Wang X (2012). Media guidelines for the responsible reporting of suicide: a review of effectiveness. Crisis, 33(4):190–198.
Broussard M (2015). Artificial intelligence for investigative reporting: Using an expert system to enhance journalists’ ability to discover original public affairs stories. Digital Journalism, 3(6):814–831.
Buch VH, Ahmed I, Maruthappu M (2018). Artificial intelligence in medicine: current trends and future possibilities. The British Journal of General Practice: The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 68(668):143–144.
De la Peña N, Weil P, Llobera J, Giannopoulos E, Pomés A, Spanlang B, Friedman D, Sanchez-Vives MV, Slater M (2010). Immersive journalism: immersive virtual reality for the first-person experience of news. Presence: Teleoperators and virtual environments, 19(4):291-301.
Figueira Á, Oliveira L (2017). The current state of fake news: challenges and opportunities. Procedia Computer Science, 121:817–825.
Franklin B (2014). The Future Of Journalism: In an age of digital media and economic uncertainty. Digital Journalism, 2(3):254–272.
Graves L (2018). Understanding the Promise and Limits of Automated Fact-Checking [website]. (https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/2018-02/graves_factsheet_180226%20FINAL.pdf).
Jaggi R, Ghosh M, Prakash G, Patankar S (2017). Health and Fitness Articles on Facebook-A Content Analysis. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development. 8(4):762.
Lai J, Widmar NO (2020). Revisiting the Digital Divide in the COVID ‐19 Era. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy:aepp.13104.
Lewis J, Inthorn S, Wahl-Jorgensen K (2005). Citizens or consumers?: What the media tell us about political participation. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
Lewis SC, Sanders AK, Carmody C (2019). Libel by Algorithm? Automated Journalism and the Threat of Legal Liability. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 96(1):60–81.
Marda V (2018). Artificial intelligence policy in India: a framework for engaging the limits of data-driven decision-making. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 376(2133):20180087.
Menon V, Kar SK, Marthoenis M, Arafat SMY, Sharma G, Kaliamoorthy C, Ransing R, Mukherjee S, Pattnaik JI, Shirahatti NB, Varadharajan N, Padhy SK (2020a). Is there any link between celebrity suicide and further suicidal behaviour in India? International Journal of Social Psychiatry: doi: 10.1177/0020764020964531.
Menon V, Kaliamoorthy C, Sridhar VK, Varadharajan N, Joseph R, Kattimani S, Kar SK, Arafat SMY (2020b). Do Tamil newspapers educate the public about suicide? Content analysis from a high suicide Union Territory in India. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 66(8):785–791.
Miroshnichenko A (2018). AI to Bypass Creativity. Will Robots Replace Journalists? (The Answer Is “Yes”). Information, 9(7):183.
Nanas N, Vavalis M, Houstis E (2010). Personalised news and scientific literature aggregation. Information processing & management, 46(3):268–283.
Niederkrotenthaler T, Braun M, Pirkis J, Till B, Stack S, Sinyor M, Tran US, Voracek M, Cheng Q, Arendt F, Scherr S, Yip PSF, Spittal MJ (2020). Association between suicide reporting in the media and suicide: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 368:m575.
Radcliffe D (2020). 5 global news consumption trends in charts [website]. (https://ijnet.org/en/story/5-global-news-consumption-trends-charts, accessed 28 November 2020).
Ransing R, Nagendrappa S, Patil A, Shoib S, Sarkar D (2020). Potential role of artificial intelligence to address the COVID-19 outbreak-related mental health issues in India. Psychiatry Research, 290: 113176.
Ransing R, Menon V, Kar SK, Arafat SMY, Padhy SK (2021). Measures to Improve the Quality of National Suicide Data of India: The Way Forward. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine: https://doi.org/10.1177/0253717620973416.
Salathé M, Vu DQ, Khandelwal S, Hunter DR. (2013). The dynamics of health behavior sentiments on a large online social network. EPJ Data Science, 2(1):4.
WHO (2008). Preventing suicide: a resource for media professionals. Geneva, Switzerland; International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP), World Health Organization. Dept. of Mental Health and Substance Abuse;
WHO (2017). Preventing suicide: A resource for media professionals. (https://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/resource_media.pdf, accessed 27 October 2020).
Wölker A, Powell TE (2018). Algorithms in the newsroom? News readers’ perceived credibility and selection of automated journalism. Journalism: Theory, Practice & Criticism:146488491875707.
- Article View: 244
- PDF Download: 114