Online ISSN: 2754-9380

Keywords : systematic review


There is a substantial global burden of perioperative anxiety in the paediatric population – a systematic review

Iona Minty; Millicent Banks

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2021, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 208-217
DOI: 10.52095/gp.2021.1181.1014

Objective: Perioperative anxiety is described as an uncomfortable, tense or unpleasant mood at any point in the surgical journey. It can alter the way patients’ deal with the surgical experience and think about surgical treatments in the future. This systematic review aims to investigate the methods of diagnosing perioperative anxiety and assess the prevalence of the condition within the global paediatric population undergoing operations.
Materials and methods: The systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA Checklist (a 27-item checklist to address introduction, methods, results and discussion with a systematic review). Medline and Scopus databases were searched. Two independent reviewers determined which papers were suitable for inclusion. Inclusion was determined by the mention of prevalence of operative-related anxiety, in a population under 18 years old and patients that were undergoing an operation in a hospital setting. Initially, 48 papers were found and, after screening, a total of 12 eligible studies were included. Data was extracted on the method of diagnosis of anxiety, the prevalence of perioperative anxiety, the time of assessment and the age of the cohort. Cochrane bias assessment was used to assess the presence of types of bias in randomised control trials (RCTs) included and the risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions tool in each non-RCTs.
Results: 83% (n=10) studies used the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) for diagnosis.‌‌ The overall average prevalence of perioperative anxiety in each paediatric cohort undergoing surgery was 42.1% (95% CI 30.5 - 53.7). There was not sufficient evidence to support a relationship between the age of the patient groups, the time of the anxiety assessment and the prevalence of the perioperative anxiety.
Conclusion: Paediatric anxiety remains a significant factor affecting over a third of all children who undergo operations. The vast majority of papers used the mYPAS for diagnosis although there is still some debate about the most appropriate diagnostic tool. Further studies are needed to assess the factors influencing perioperative anxiety and to evaluate the impact of perioperative anxiety on the patient experience and recovery.

A systematic review of mindfulness based interventions for children and young people with ADHD and their parents

Illaria Tercelli; Nuno Ferreira

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 79-96
DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/gp-2019-0007

Objective
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders in childhood, which may pose risks in later life such as academic underachievement and anti-social behaviour. It has been suggested that mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) may contribute to positive outcomes with child and adult populations. In this article, we aim to systematically review the literature regarding the effectiveness of MBI on both children with ADHD and their parents.


Method
Seven databases were searched using the PRISMA criteria and included peer-reviewed journals and grey literature.


Results
Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Findings suggested that MBI had positive results in addressing attention deficits in children with ADHD, but in terms of hyperactivity, the evidence was conflicting. MBI interventions also appear to effectively address parental stress and family functioning. However, the rating from the quality assessment showed several methodological limitations.


Discussion
The current evidence on the impact of MBI on ADHD symptoms is non-conclusive. However, promising data indicated the potential for MBI in addressing parental stress and family functioning. Further research is recommended to overcome the current methodological limitations.










 

Current challenges of suicide and future directions of management in Bangladesh: a systematic review

S.M. Yasir Arafat

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 9-20
DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/gp-2019-0001

Objectives
Bangladesh is a densely populated country in south-east Asia with paucity of research in suicide. This systematic review was aimed at critical appraising various aspects of suicide in Bangladesh based on available literature and systematic search.


Methods
Extensive literature search was conducted in Scopus, PubMed, PubMed Central, Google, Google Scholar and BanglaJOL with searching key words without any date boundary and without any basis of types of studies, that is, all types of studies were scrutinised. The author focused on sources of suicide data along with epidemiological variables of suicides in Bangladesh such as suicide rate, gender of victims, methods of suicides, risk factors and prevention activities and role of media in suicide.


Results
After exclusion of repetitions, screening was performed, and finally, 35 articles were selected for review. Amongst the 35 articles, 16 articles were original contributions, 2 systematic reviews, 6 narrative reviews, 2 scoping reviews, 3 editorials, 3 case reports and rest correspondence article. The review revealed that the actual rate of suicide in Bangladesh is yet to come out and quality data is a real challenge. Women are dying more than the men, and early adulthood is the most vulnerable time of life.


Discussion
Suicide is a under attended problem in Bangladesh, as the country yet to reveal the actual rate of suicide along with the challenge of quality data. Prevention activities have been started but yet to be visualised. Decriminalisation of suicide in the legal criteria and establishment of suicide surveillance can be the top priorities in the country.










 

Nocturnal Enuresis is an Under-recognised Side Effect of Clozapine: Results of a Systematic Review

Niku Dhillon; Reinhard Heun

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 21-30
DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/gp-2018-0007

Objectives
Clozapine is an effective antipsychotic medication licenced for the management of treatment resistant schizophrenia. Due to its non-selective pharmacology, it has a broad range of side effects. Nocturnal enuresis secondary to the use of clozapine has been documented in the literature but may be overlooked, the link between drug and symptom being clinically unnoticed. Patients may not mention urinary symptoms due to supervening psychosis, co-existing symptomatology, embarrassment or shame. By raising awareness of the phenomenon, early recognition and patient support may improve compliance with clozapine medication, and consecutively, overall mental health. Consequently, this systematic review investigates the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis secondary to clozapine use.


Methods
A literature search on clozapine and nocturnal enuresis was used to identify the relevant papers. Papers providing the prevalence data on Clozapine associated nocturnal enuresis were selected for data extraction.


Results
47 papers were initially identified. Eight papers focused on the prevalence of clozapine associated nocturnal enuresis (CANE). Point prevalence (nocturnal enuresis at the time of assessment), 1-month prevalence and episode prevalence (nocturnal enuresis since beginning of clozapine) were given. Papers included patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar affective disorder and psychotic depression, taking clozapine medication. The prevalence of CANE ranged from 10–42%. Point prevalence was 21–27%, 1-month prevalence was 10–39% and episode prevalence was 15–42%. Clozapine was more likely to cause nocturnal enuresis compared to other psychotropic medication.


Conclusion
The prevalence of CANE may be greater than previously thought. However, in order to determine an accurate prevalence of clozapine associated nocturnal enuresis, larger studies with strict inclusion criteria, common definition of diagnosis and prevalence are required. By establishing an accurate prevalence, physician awareness can be improved, and patients can becounselled on the risk of developing the side effect, thus improving early identification and reducing discontinuation rates.










 

The effects of Rhodiola Rosea supplementation on depression, anxiety and mood – A Systematic Review

Fanaras Konstantinos; Reinhard Heun

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2020, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 72-82
DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/gp-2019-0022

Objectives
Rhodiola rosea is an adaptogen herb from the Crassulaceae family, which has been vastly used in the Russian and Chinese medicine. The herb is used against depression, anxiety, mental and physical fatigue and to promote overall health. In this systematic review, we examined the effects of R. rosea on depression, anxiety and mood, as these are the most relevant to mental health.


Methods
Literature searches were made in PubMed using the term ‘Rhodiola rosea’. Inclusion criteria were: Randomized controlled trials using interventions of R. rosea on any type of participants, while focusing on the effects of the intervention on depression, anxiety or mood. Mixed interventions of R. rosea with other herbs were excluded. Studies not published in English or Greek were excluded.


Results
A total of 39 randomized controlled trials were identified and their abstract was screened. After screening, a total of 17 papers were excluded because they were focusing on irrelevant outcomes. The full text of the remaining 22 papers was read and an additional 17 papers were excluded. These papers were excluded because they were eventually not focusing on our main outcome or they were using R. rosea interventions with other herbs. In the end, a total of 5 papers (n = 327 participants) were found eligible for our systematic review. In these studies, R. rosea seems to improve the symptoms of mild to moderate depression, symptoms of mild anxiety and to enhance mood. The last date of our search was October 13, 2019.


Conclusion
Rhodiola rosea supplementation may alleviate symptoms of mild to moderate depression and mild anxiety, while it may also enhance mood. The findings of our review are not definite due to the lack of available experimental data. Randomized controlled trials with a low risk of bias are needed to further study the herb.










 

Impact of Social Context on the Self-Concept of Gay and Lesbian Youth: A Systematic Review

Fatima Hossain; Nuno Ferreira

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 51-78
DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/gp-2019-0006

Objectives
Self-concept distortion has been extensively linked with decreasing mental health in gay and lesbian youth. Social context has been proposed to have a moderating effect on the development of a healthy self-concept. However, no good quality review has approached these concepts with regards to LGBT youth.


Methods
A systematic review was conducted on the relationship between social context and self-concept in gay and lesbian youth. Twenty studies were included in the review.


Results
Quality assessment of papers yielded moderate methodological strength. Findings implied that social context has considerable influence on self-concept development. Discrepancies in assessment methods, areas of social context examined, and one-dimensional nature of examining self-concept interferes with drawing explicit conclusions regarding the relationship between social context and self-concept.


Conclusion
Positivity of social context is not conclusively relatable to positive self-concept development, and similarly, a negative context is not predetermining of self-concept distortions. Building on resilience factors of gay and lesbian youth, working together with families, and advancing and utilizing available educational and community resources should mitigate the strength of overt and covert heterosexism hindering healthy self-concept development. Further longitudinal and cross-cultural research will be necessary to provide insight into the mechanisms of associations.










 

The effects of Guarana (Paullinia cupana) supplementation on the cognitive performance of young healthy adults – a Systematic Review

Fanaras Konstantinos; Reinhard Heun

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2019, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 171-182
DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/gp-2019-0015

Objectives
Guarana (Paullinia cupana) from the Sapindaceae family, native to the Amazon basin, is a natural stimulant herb that can be found in popular energy drinks, pharmaceutical shops or local herb shops. With the use of natural health products increasing, guarana has gained a fair amount of popularity in the past years. In this systematic review, we examined the effects of guarana supplementation on cognitive performance. A secondary objective was to compare guarana with caffeine on cognitive performance.


Methods
Searches were made in PubMed using the terms ‘Guarana’ or ‘Paullinia cupana’. Filters focused on Controlled Clinical trials. Inclusion criteria were met by studies using interventions with guarana, while focusing on guarana’s effects on cognition. Participants needed to be young, healthy adults. Studies not published in English or Greek were excluded. The last date of our search was March 7, 2019.


Results
A total of 29 studies were identified and screened. After screening, 17 studies were excluded. The remaining 12 studies were found eligible for data extraction. After reading the full text of the 12 studies, 3 studies were excluded. In the end, 9 studies were found eligible for our systematic review (n = 369 participants). In these studies, guarana showed to improve reaction time and accuracy of performance at cognitive tasks. No significant differences were found when comparing guarana with caffeine.


Conclusion
Guarana seems to improve reaction time and accuracy of performance at tasks, but no significant effects were found when compared with caffeine. High quality randomized controlled clinical trials with a low risk of bias are needed to further study the herb.










 

A systematic review on the effect of Ramadan on mental health: minor effects and no harm in general, but increased risk of relapse in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

Reinhard Heun

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 7-16

Objectives
Globally, Moslems are the second largest religious group. During the month of Ramadan from dawn to sundown, healthy Moslems are required to refrain from eating, drinking, smoking, sexual activity and harmful behaviour towards others and themselves. Thus Ramadan may change individual physical states and social interactions. Both might affect mental health within society. Consequently, this systematic review looks at the various effects of Ramadan on mental health.


Methods
A literature search on Ramadan and mental health initially identified 294 papers. We finally selected all 22 relevant papers covering Ramadan and mental health from which study data were extracted.


Results
Relevant papers focussed on the general population and healthy volunteers, on subjects practising sports, on subjects with severe physical disorders, on subjects at risk of eating disorders and on subjects with mental health disorders. The effects of Ramadan on mental well-being were mixed. Positive and negative effects were usually minor, except in subjects with schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome, and in subjects with bipolar disorder who suffered a substantial increase of relapses.


Conclusion
Ramadan fasting is safe in most conditions and disorders, but caution is required in subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The research on mental health and Ramadan would profit from larger studies with more representative samples to help understand the intra-individual and social factors that affect the mental health and well-being in patients and in society. The scientific potential of such studies may have been overlooked in the psychiatric community.

Antidepressant drugs for older patients on polypharmacy: a systematic review reveals best evidence for sertraline

Stuhec Matej; Serra- Mestres Jordi

GLOBAL PSYCHIATRY ARCHIVES, 2018, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 17-24

Objectives
There is almost no data on antidepressant prescribing in older adults treated with polypharmacy, although this population represents approximately 50% of older patients. These patients are frequently excluded from double-blind randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses and existing treatment guidelines. The main aim of this paper was to identify data on antidepressant prescribing in depressed older adults on polypharmacy using a systematic review.


Methods
Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) and other clinical trials in Medline/PubMed without language limitation (-2017) were searched to identify those with older depressed patients on polypharmacy. Only elderly patients (>65 years as mean) were included. Only approved antidepressants were included.


Results
The systematic search identified 26 different clinical trials, although only one clinical open label trial with sertraline met the final inclusion criteria. This sertraline trial indicated the absence of clinically important drug-drug interactions and confirmed the effectiveness and safety of sertraline in routine clinical practice. Heterogeneity in this trial was high in almost all the categories except attrition and reporting bias.


Conclusions
Sertraline has the highest evidence level in older adults with depression on polypharmacy. According to the results of this review and due to a low number of appropriate trials, a basic understanding of psychopharmacology is the possible approach to avoid serious problematic drug combinations in these patients. Newer RCTs are also urgently needed. This is the first systematic review including patients treated with polypharmacy, and therefore, its results are important in the field of evidence-based medicine.