Severity of depression, anxiety and stress among the people of Kashmir, India during COVID-19: An observation from tele psychiatric services
AbstractObjective: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the mental health and well-being of millions of people across the globe. This study aimed to assess the severity of depression, anxiety and stress level among persons who sought teleconsultation during the lockdown period in Kashmir, India.
Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from 21 March to 31 May 2020 in Kashmir, India. A call line was set up for people with mental health concerns and participants who signed up for the service were included in the study. The mental health services were provided by a team via teleconsultation. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) questionnaire was used to assess the severity of distress.
Results: A total of 293 people were interviewed during the teleconsultation service. The mean age was 37.10 (± 10.54) years, the majority had moderate depression, 125 (42.7%), followed by extreme severe depression, 95 (32.4%). The mean depression score on the DASS-21 scale was 13.52 ± 4.13. A total of 276 (94.2%) patients had severe anxiety following lockdown with a mean anxiety score of 14.04 ± 9.23. Also, 96 (32.8%) of people had mild stress with a mean stress score of 12.82 ± 7.32.
Conclusion: The severity of depression, anxiety and stress was high in our study population highlighting the need to provide critical mental health services. Teleconsultations could be an alternative approach to provide such services in areas with public health emergencies and where medical infrastructure is limited.
Grover S, Sahoo S, Mehra A, Avasthi A, Tripathi A, Subramanyan A, et al,.Pattojoshi A,. Psychological impact of COVID-19 lockdown: An online survey from India. Indian J Psychiatry. 2020 Jul-Aug;62(4):354-362. doi: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_427_20.
Indian Psychiatric Society. Position Statement on COVID-19 Pandemic, Mental Health Issues. 2020. https://indianpsychiatricsociety.org/250411-2/.
Joseph SJ, Shoib S, Sg T, Bhandari SS. Psychological concerns and musculoskeletal pain amidst the COVID-19 lockdown. Open J Psychiatry Allied Sci. 2020;11(2):137-139.
Kar S.K., Yasir Arafat S.M., Kabir R., Sharma P., Saxena S.K. (2020) Coping with Mental Health Challenges During COVID-19. In: Saxena S. (eds) Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Medical Virology: From Pathogenesis to Disease Control. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-4814-7_16.
Liu S, Yang L, Zhang C, Xiang YT, Liu Z, Hu S, Zhang B. Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020 Apr;7(4):e17-e18. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30077-8.
Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behav Res Ther. 1995 Mar;33(3):335-43. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-u.
Ministry of health of family welfare (2020). https://www.mohfw.gov.in. [accessed 10 July 2020].
Naik A. As India’s lockdown ends, a mental health crisis is looming (18 May 2020). World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/05/indias-lockdown-ends-mental-health-crisis-beginning/.
Nanjundaswamy MH, Shiva L, Desai G, et al. COVID-19-related anxiety and concerns expressed by pregnant and postpartum women-a survey among obstetricians. Arch Womens Ment Health 2020;1-4. doi:10.1007/s00737-020-01060-w.
Rajkumar RP. COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020 Aug;52:102066. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102066.
Ransing R, Nagendrappa S, Patil A, Shoib S, Sarkar D. Potential role of artificial intelligence to address the COVID-19 outbreak-related mental health issues in India. Psychiatry Res. 2020a Aug;290:113176. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113176.
Ransing R, Adiukwu F, Pereira-Sanchez V, Ramalho R, Orsolini L, Teixeira ALS, et al,. Mental Health Interventions during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Conceptual Framework by Early Career Psychiatrists. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020b Jun;51:102085. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102085.
Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, Sharma N, Verma SK, Kaushal V. Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020 Jun;51:102083. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102083.
Shoib S, Dar MM, Bashir H, Qayoom G, Arif T. Psychiatric morbidity and the socio-demographic determinants of patients attempting suicide in Kashmir valley: a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research, 2012; 2(7), 45-53.
Shoib S, Nagendrappa S, Grigo O, Rehman S, Ransing R. Factors associated with COVID-19 outbreak-related suicides in India. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020 Oct;53:102223. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102223.
Shoib S, Yasir Arafat SM. Mental health in Kashmir: conflict to COVID-19. Public Health. 2020a Oct;187:65-66. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2020.07.034.
Shoib S, Arafat SMY. COVID-19 and the communication blackouts in Kashmir, India. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020b Sep;7(9):738. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30338-2.
Smith AC, Thomas E, Snoswell CL, Haydon H, Mehrotra A, Clemensen J et al,. Telehealth for global emergencies: Implications for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). J Telemed Telecare. 2020 Jun;26(5):309-313. doi: 10.1177/1357633X20916567.
Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, et al,. Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Mar 6;17(5):1729. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17051729.
Vahia VN, Shah AB. COVID-19 pandemic and mental health care of older adults in India. Int Psychogeriatr. 2020 Oct;32(10):1125-1127. doi: 10.1017/S1041610220001441.
Verma S, Mishra A. Depression, anxiety, and stress and socio-demographic correlates among general Indian public during COVID-19. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2020 Dec;66(8):756-762. doi: 10.1177/0020764020934508.
Zhou X, Snoswell CL, Harding LE, Bambling M, Edirippulige S, Bai X, Smith AC. The Role of Telehealth in Reducing the Mental Health Burden from COVID-19. Telemed J E Health. 2020 Apr;26(4):377-379. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2020.0068.
- Article View: 214
- PDF Download: 38